Category Archives: Health

LIVING CREATURES IN OUR SKIN

Meet The Mites That Live On Your Face

May 21, 20199:20 AM ET

CREATOR JOSH CASSIDY

Edited By Alex Santiago

It might give you the creepy-crawlies, but you almost certainly have tiny mites living in the pores of your face right now.

They’re known as Demodex or eyelash mites, and just about every adult human alive has a population living on them.

The mostly transparent critters are too small to see with the naked eye. At about 0.3 millimeters long, it would would take about five adult face mites laid end to end to stretch across the head of a pin.

“They look like kind of like stubby little worms,” says Michelle Trautwein, an entomologist at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco.

Demodex face mites got their name from the Greek words for “fat” and “boring worm,” but they’re not really worms at all. They’re actually arachnids — related to ticks and, more distantly, to spiders.

Michelle Trautwein, an entomologist at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, tested more than 2,000 people and found DNA evidence of face mites on every single one of them.

Trautwein studies our relationship with these microscopic stowaways by looking at their DNA. Her findings suggest that people in different parts of the world have different face mites. “They tell a story of your own ancestry and also a story of more ancient human history and migration,” she says.

But before she could tell that story, she needed to find the mites.

“We use a little spoon and scrape it across the kind of greasier parts of someone’s face, which isn’t as bad as it sounds,” Trautwein says.

Once the samples have been collected, she takes them to the lab to look at the genetics.

Trautwein has tested more than 2,000 people, including tourists from all around the world that make their way to the California Academy of Sciences. And she’s found DNA evidence of face mites on every single one of them.

“No one is thrilled at the initial notion that they have arachnids on their face,” Trautwein says. “But people are often curious — even in their revulsion.”

But how could these creatures live on so many people and still go unnoticed?

Our skin is mostly covered by a thin layer of peach-fuzz called vellus hair, with a few notable exceptions such as the palms of our hands and feet. The shaft of each one of those tiny hairs grows out of its own follicle.

Face mites — Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis — spend their days facedown inside your hair follicles, nestled up against the hair shaft, where you can’t see them.

face mite

They eat sebum, the greasy oil your skin makes to protect itself and keep it from drying out. The sebum is produced in sebaceous glands, which empty into the hair follicles and coat both the hair shaft and face mite.

That’s why the greasiest parts of your body, such as around the eyes, nose and mouth, likely harbor a higher concentration of mites than other areas.

The mites live for about two weeks. They spend most of their time tucked inside the pores, but while people sleep, they crawl out onto the skin’s surface to mate and then head back to lay their eggs.

Since they live inside your pores, you can’t scrub them off by washing. It’s basically impossible to get rid of all of your face mites.

So how does Trautwein find and study a particular mite? With glue.

“I actually put glue on a glass microscope slide and stick it onto a person’s forehead,” she says. “Then I slowly peel it off. I look under a microscope for mites that are stuck in the follicles that stick up from the thin layer of skin that got peeled off.”

“It can be pretty addictive and exciting,” she adds. “It’s sort of a meditative process of looking through this microforest of follicles and hairs and looking for just the right potential movement or shape.”

It seems our immune system is able to keep their numbers in check, but some people can experience problems with the mites.

“When you tell patients that they have face mites, first of all, they freak out,” says Kanade Shinkai, a dermatologist at the University of California, San Francisco.

Since face mites live inside your pores, you can’t wash them off. But for a majority of people, they’re harmless.

Shinkai occasionally treats patients who have an overload of face mites, which results in a condition called demodicosis.

“There is a very particular look to people suffering from demodicosis. We call it the Demodex frost,” she says. “It’s sort of a white sheen on the skin. And if you look really closely, you can see [it] coming out of every pore. If you scrape those pores, you can see it frothing with little Demodex face mites.”

The condition is relatively rare and is often connected to a decline in the immune system, such as receiving immunosuppressive drugs after transplant surgery, chemotherapy orimmunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS.

Demodicosis can also be triggered by local suppression of the immune system, like using itch-relieving hydrocortisone cream on the face.

It usually comes on fast. “Patients almost universally describe this explosive development of like pustules like whiteheads on their face. It’s really dramatic,” Shinkai says. “And what’s really dramatic about it is that they’re often fine the day before, and then they develop it overnight.”

For the vast majority of people, though, face mites are nothing to worry about. While some studies have found loose connections between Demodex and diseases like rosacea, the evidence hasn’t shown a strong link.

“What’s really confusing is that if you go into your office and scrape everyone’s face, you would find Demodex probably on everybody,” Shinkai says. “And people who have low burden of Demodex may have no or very severe disease and vice versa.”

Trautwein also sees face mites more as a source of interest than of fear.

“They’re not dangerous in a broad sense because we all have them and most of us seem to be cohabiting quite well with them,” Trautwein says. “We mostly share them within family units, and it seems like you are probably initially colonized soon after birth, most likely by your mother, traditionally speaking in human history.”

Looking at your mites, researchers such as Trautwein can usually tell something about your geographical ancestry — what part of the world your ancestors came from.

“Face mites are definitely the species of animal that we have the closest connection with as humans, even though most of us don’t know about them or ever see one in our lifetime,” she says. “We still have this very ancient and intimate relationship, and it seems clear that we’ve had these face mite species with us for all of our history. So they are as old as our species, as old as Homo sapiens.”

OVERCOME INSECURITY

PsychAlive

ANXIETY, CRITICAL INNER VOICE, ISOLATION AND LONELINESS, SELF DEVELOPMENT, SELF-DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR, SELF-ESTEEM

By PsychAlive

Edited By Alex Santiago

We are called a narcissistic generation. We are told that technology and social media are giving us an inflated sense of self. But most of us don’t walk around feeling like we are all that great. In fact, there is one underlying emotion that overwhelmingly shapes our self-image and influences our behavior, and that is insecurity. If you could enter the minds of people around you, even the narcissistic ones, you’re likely to encounter ceaseless waves of insecurity. A recent survey found that 60 percent of women experience hurtful, self-critical thoughts on a weekly basis.

In their research, father-and-daughter psychologists Dr.’s Robert and Lisa Firestone used an assessment tool known as the Firestone Assessment for Self-Destructive Thoughts (FAST) to evaluate people’s self-attacks (or “critical inner voices”) along a continuum. What they found is that the most common self-critical thought people have toward themselves is that they are different – not in a positive sense, but in some negative, alienating way. Whether our self-esteem is high or low, one thing is clear; we are a generation that compares, evaluates and judges ourselves with great scrutiny. By understanding where this insecurity comes from, why we are driven to put ourselves down and how this viewpoint affects us, we can start to challenge and overcome the destructive inner critic that limits our lives.

Why am I so insecure? What causes insecurity?

There is an internal dialogue that accompanies our feelings of insecurity. This is called the “critical inner voice.” Dr. Lisa Firestone, who co-authored the book Conquer Your Critical Inner Voice wrote, “The critical inner voice is formed out of painful early life experiences in which we witnessed or experienced hurtful attitudes toward us or those close to us. As we grow up, we unconsciously adopt and integrate this pattern of destructive thoughts toward ourselves and others.”

So, what events or attitudes shape this inner critic? The experiences we have with our influential early caretakers can be at the root of our insecurity as adults. Imagine a child being yelled at by a parent. “You’re so spaced out! Can’t you figure anything out on your own?” Then, imagine the negative comments and attitudes parents express toward themselves. “I look terrible in this. I’m so fat.” These attitudes don’t even have to be verbalized to influence the child. A parent’s absence can leave children feeling insecure and believing there is something fundamentally wrong with them. An intrusive parent can cause children to become introverted or self-reliant in ways that make them feel insecure or untrusting of others. Studies have even shown that exaggerated praise can be damaging to a child’s self-esteem.

The reason for this is that children must feel seen for who they are in order to feel secure. A lot of our issues with insecurity can come from our early attachment style. Dr. Daniel Siegel, author of Parenting from the Inside Out, says the key to healthy attachment is in the four S’s, feeling safe, seen, soothed and secure. Whether children are being shamed or praised, they are, most likely, not feeling seen by the parent for who they really are. They may start to feel insecurity and lose a sense of their actual abilities.

A healthy attitude for parents to maintain is to see themselves and their children realistically and to treat them with acceptance and compassion. The best way a parent can support their children is to allow them to find something that is unique to them – something that lights them up and that they will work to achieve. This activity must appeal to the child’s interest, not just the parents. As author and civil rights leader Howard Thurman famously said, ““Don’t ask what the world needs. Ask what makes you come alive, and go do it. Because what the world needs is people who have come alive.”

As the child pursues whatever interest makes them “come alive,” the parent should offer support and acknowledgment for the effort involved as opposed to focusing too much on the result. It’s the difference between saying “What a stunning picture. You are the best artist I’ve seen” and saying, “I love the way you used so many colors. It’s awesome that you worked so hard on this. What gave you that idea?” This practice helps a child establish a sense of self-worth.

The Effect of Insecurity

It’s clear that there are many things that shape our critical inner voice, from negative attitudes directed toward us to attitudes our parents had toward themselves. As we get older, we internalize these points of view as our own. We keep these attitudes alive by believing in our insecurities as we go along in life. The most common critical inner voices Dr.’s Robert and Lisa Firestone found people to experience throughout their day include:

  • You’re stupid.
  • You’re unattractive.
  • You never get anything right.
  • You’re not like other people.
  • You’re a failure.
  • You’re fat.
  • You’re such a loser.
  • You’ll never make friends.
  • No one will ever love you.
  • You’ll never be able to quit drinking (smoking etc).
  • You’ll never accomplish anything.
  • What’s the point in even trying?

Like a mean coach, this voice tends to get louder as we get closer to our goals. “You’re gonna screw up any minute. Everyone will realize what a failure you are. Just quit before it’s too late.” Oftentimes, we react to these thoughts before we even realize we are having them. We may grow shy at a party, pull back from a relationship, project these attacks onto the people around us or act out toward a friend, partner or our children. Just imagine what life would be like if you didn’t hear any of these mean thoughts echo in your head. Imagine what reality might actually look like if you could live free of this prescribed insecurity.

Insecurity at Work

Insecurity can affect us in countless areas of our lives. Every person will notice their inner critic being more vocal in one area or another. For example, you may feel pretty confident at work but completely lost in your love life or vice versa. You may even notice that when one area improves, the other deteriorates. Most of us can relate, at one time or another, to having self-sabotaging thoughts toward ourselves about our career. Old feelings that we are incompetent or that we will never be acknowledged or appreciated can send our insecurities through the roof. Some common critical inner voices about one’s career include:

  • You don’t know what you’re doing.
  • Why do they expect you to do everything yourself?
  • Who do you think you are? You’ll never be successful.
  • You’re under too much pressure. You can’t take it.
  • You’ll never get everything done. You’re so lazy.
  • You should just put this off until tomorrow.
  • No one appreciates you.
  • You’d better be perfect, or you’ll get fired.
  • Nobody likes you here.
  • Put your career first. Don’t take time for yourself.
  • When are you ever going to get a real job?
  • No one would hire you.

Insecurity in Relationships

Whether we are single, dating or in a serious, long-term relationship, there are many ways our critical inner voice can creep in to our romantic lives. Relationships, in particular, can stir up past hurts and experiences. They can awaken insecurities we’ve long buried and bring up emotions we don’t expect. Moreover, many of us harbor unconscious fears of intimacy. Being close to someone else can shake us up and bring these emotions and critical inner voices even closer to the surface. Listening to this inner critic can do serious damage to our interpersonal relationships. It can cause us to feel desperate toward our partner or pull back when things start to get serious. It can exaggerate feelings of jealousy or possessiveness or leave us feeling rejected and unworthy. Common critical inner voices we have toward ourselves about relationships include:

  • You’re never going to find another person who understands you.
  • Don’t get too hooked on her.
  • He doesn’t really care about you.
  • She is too good for you.
  • You’ve got to keep him interested.
  • You’re better off on your own.
  • As soon as she gets to know you, she will reject you.
  • You’ve got to be in control.
  • It’s your fault if he gets upset.
  • Don’t be too vulnerable or you’ll just wind up getting hurt.

How Can I Overcome Insecurity?

Once we have a better sense of where our insecurity comes from and the profound influence it is having on our lives, we can begin to challenge it. We can start by interrupting the critical inner voice process. Voice Therapy is a cognitive/affective/behavioral approach developed by Dr. Robert Firestone to help people overcome their critical inner voice. There are five important steps to this process, which I will briefly outline.

Step I

The first step of Voice Therapy involves vocalizing your self-critical thoughts in the second person. You can also write down these thoughts. Instead of writing “I am so stupid. What is the matter with me? I’ll never be successful,” you would write, “You are so stupid. You will never be successful.” This process helps you to separate from these vicious attacks by seeing them as an external enemy instead of your real point of view. This process can also be an emotional one, as saying these statements can bring up underlying feelings from the past.

Step II

In the second step, you can start to think and talk about the insights and reactions you have to exposing these mean thoughts. Do they remind you of anyone or anything from your past? It can be helpful to uncover the relationship between these voice attacks and the early life experiences that helped shape them. This too will allow you to feel some self-compassion and reject these attitudes as accurate reflections of who you are.

Step III

People often struggle with the third step of this process, because it involves standing up to long-held beliefs and insecurities about oneself. You will answer back to your voice attacks, expressing your real point of view. You can write down rational and realistic statements about how you really are. Respond to your attacks the way you would to a friend who was saying these things about him or herself, with compassion and kindness.

Step IV

In step five of Voice Therapy, you start to make a connection between how the voice attacks are influencing your present-day behaviors. How do they affect you at work? With your partner? As a parent? In your personal ambitions? Do they undermine you? What events trigger the insecurity? In what areas is this insecurity most influential?

Step V

The final step involves making a plan to change these behaviors. If insecurity is keeping you from asking someone on a date or going after a promotion, it’s time to do the actions anyway. If you’re indulging in self-hating thoughts that encourage you to engage in self-destructive behaviors, it’s time to interrupt these behaviors and unleash the real you.

This process will not be easy. With change always comes anxiety. These defenses and critical inner voices have been with you your whole life, and they can feel uncomfortable to challenge. When you do change, expect the voices to get louder. Your insecurities aren’t likely to vanish overnight, but slowly, through perseverance, they will start to weaken. Whenever you notice an attack come up, stand up to it and don’t indulge in its directives. If you want to be healthy, don’t let it lure you to avoid exercise. If you want to get closer to your partner, don’t listen when it tells you to hold back your affections.

Join Dr. Lisa Firestone for a Webinar on Overcoming Insecurity

As you sweat through this tough but very worthy transition, it is important to practice self-compassion. Research by Dr. Kristin Neff found self-compassion to be far more psychologically beneficial than self-esteem. Self-esteem still focuses on evaluation and performance, where self-compassion encourages an attitude of kindness and patience. Self-esteem can increase our levels of insecurity, where self-compassion asks us to slow down and assign ourselves value simply for being human. Once we realize our own strength and importance, once we see the ways we’ve been hurt and can feel for ourselves on a deep level, we can actually start to break free of the chains that hold us back. We can shed the insecurities of our past and become the people we want to be.Share the knowledge!

PsychAlive

About The Autor

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SEX FREAKS BY NATURE

Susi Ferrarello Ph.D.

Lying on the Philosopher’s Couch

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is ferrarello.jpg

The lion raised as a pet in the house.

Edited By Alex Santiago

Source: Alessandro Stefoni, used with permssion

“Sex” — this word is everywhere and can mean anything.

A few days ago, I was in a cafe and I heard a guy saying to his friend: “Hmmm… your coffee looks sexy.”

A coffee, seriously?

As an Italian, I’m always impressed by such expansive use of this word. I still remember the sense of panic I felt when a colleague of mine used this word during a lecture I gave at a conference. He described my paper as “sexy.” What? I blushed and smiled nervously.

Now I know. This word is nearly synonymous today with all that is spicy, juicy, vital, dynamic.

The etymology

Yet if we look at its origin, this very “sexy” word was born in a dusty bureaucratic office.

“Sex”, sexusin Latin, comes in fact from the verb secare, “to divide or cut,” and is related to “section,” or that which is divided. Latin used this word to point to the quality of being male or female in order to group the population and make the census.

Thus, the contemporary use of this word is relatively recent. D.H. Lawrence seemed to be the first to use this new sense of the word, in 1929.

1000 ways to say “I want you!”

So then what are the words that the Greeks and Romans used to indicate sexual love?

For sure, Greeks, more than Romans, were not at a loss for words when it came to saying, “I love you,” or in this case “I want you.”

They used the verb agape to indicate a spiritual, unconditional love; stergo to mean affection; phileo to indicate a kind of a mental love relating to friendship; or finally, erao for intimate love—yes, that kind of love accompanied by passionate desire and longing.

It is so fascinating! In the Greek world, Eros stands for nature. Eros is that natural power that impinges on human existence and calls us to what our natural body needs in order to be in harmony with nature, or better, to be one with Nature.

A case in point is the satyr.

The satyr, half man and half animal—as Aristophanes described him—was gifted with boundless sexual energy that he tried to satisfy in any possible way, with animate and inanimate erotic (so to speak) “partners.” If you happen to wander into a museum somewhat yawning and bothered by your back that keeps on aching, pay closer attention to their pictures. They are a cold shower.

Those vases were the adult magazines of antiquity. Greeks liked them so much that on one of these vases, kept in Palermo (V, 651) you can see a group of satyrs mating with amphoras and pots themselves. Lissarague, a philologist, explains this somewhat questionable choice, saying that the wine amphora was the necessary accessory of the kōmos (a ritualistic drunken procession) and the symposium. Wine and sex are what make a satyr happy! Thus the famous saying “Afrodite kai Dionysos met’allelon eisi,” “Aphrodite and Dionysus are with each other.”

Certainly, satyrs loved women as well. Women, though, did not return the affection. (This explains the amphoras.) As MacNally wrote, the relationship between satyrs and maenads (the followers of Dyonisos, who were, by definition, a little bit wacky) started out friendly between 550 and 500 BC, and then, like many friendly relationships, “changed” between 500 and 470, becoming clearly hostile after 470. Maenads, according to Plutarch (Virtuous Women 12.249 e-f), were inviolable—I guess, especially if it was a bunch of half-goats coming on to them.

Well, satyrs did not get discouraged: They loved men too, of course. And in this case, they were more successful. Unlike the rest of Greek society, they were not worried about the difference in age. It did not matter if the guy, the beloved one, was younger (in fact, as a rule, they preferred this way) than they (the lovers). There is a cup in Berlin (1964.4)—another “adult magazine,” that shows a group of five satyrs in a full erotic frenzy.

To their defense, satyrs were not alone in this consuming desire. There were human beings that shared that devouring hunger. The most well-known were philosophers and poets.

They both despised Eros but found it irresistible. In his Erotic Essay Pausania named these refined class of gentlemen “monsters of appetite.”

Socrates and sex

In particular, the clique of Socrates and his followers had a lot to say on the topic.

Xenophon, the second most famous disciple of Socrates, relates a conversation the philosopher had with him about a super sexy young boy. Socrates was irritated with him because he was using his beauty to exploit people, in particular Socrates’ favorite disciple, the young Critobolus. The boy stole a kiss from Critobolus, and after that Socrates was so “philosophically” furious that he warmly invited the boy to leave the city for one year. His kiss, mumbled Socrates, was as poisonous as the bite of a spider and he commanded Xenophon to avoid him at any cost.

Socrates, agreeing with Plato and Aristotle, considered erotic pleasure fun and necessary, but it was to be handled carefully. Pure sex is meant for the beasts, or half-beats—the satyrs again. Satyrs were invented to make people see how clumsy a man was who had been completely converted to nature. The bestial passion—as Aristotle, the super-balanced thinker who fell desperately in love with the virile king, Alexander the Great (Plutarch, The Parallel Lives) said—is “slavish and brutish.

Sex, a creeping thing

Sappho (a wonderful female poet) called eros a “creeping thing.” She knew very well what erotic love was. There is one lyric of hers, “Glittering-Minded deathless Aphrodite,” in which she wrote:

“If she runs now she’ll follow later,

If she refuses gifts she’ll give them.

If she loves not, now, she’ll soon

Love against her will.”

“Love against her will.” Pretty clear: Do you love someone? Just wait. None can withstand the passion of being loved. Love is stronger than anything. Some centuries later in Inferno, V, 103 Dante will write “Amor ch’ha nullo amato, amar perdona;” adding three lines after “Amor condusse noi ad una morte certa” v. 106. “Love is Nature and Nature is Death. This is the equation. You cannot resist your nature, but somehow you have to find a way to do it.”

In the Phaedro Plato’s metaphor of the two horses is a sort of manual to learn how to succeed in this attempt. For Plato, our life is always driven by two horses, the black and white, our passion and our reason. We cannot drive just one of the two horses, or our trajectory would be crippled. Our task is to determine the right balance, or as Aristotle put it, ‘the golden mean.

“Desire doubled is love; love doubled is madness”

As Prodicus (a sophist of the Vth century) said: “Desire doubled is love; love doubled is madness.”

Love between animals was still considered cool, and the love with vases was still fine, but when it comes to women, be careful! Women’s love was considered insane, destructive, dangerous. “The memorable disaster,” Hesiod writes.

Do you know what the gods’ punishment was for men after Prometheus gave them the gift of fire, which was stolen from the immortals? It was the gods’ creation of woman and her desires! I am still laughing. I think this can give us an idea of how much the Greeks were frightened by women!

According to Hesiod, after Prometheus stole fire from the gods, Zeus set about his terrible revenge, the creation of the woman in the “likeness of a bashful maiden.” Three other gods schemed in this plot. Athena taught her the housework art of needlework and weaving (boring). Aphrodite gave her Persuasion and the power to arouse “cruel longing and limb-devouring cares.” (Now it begins to get interesting!) Finally, Hermes, the god of thievery and deceit, gave her a “bitch’s mind and deceptive character…lies and wily words.”

Alessandro Stefoni, used with permission

Source: Alessandro Stefoni, used with permission

The nightmare was ready. This beautiful scary creature, this “sheer trap,” Pandora, was created as the ancestress of the “race of women,” the “plague to men who eat bread” (Hesiod, Op. 105-120). Pandora, the prototype of women, is the pure Nature, untamable and attractive. Hesiod writes that her sexual beauty (reminiscent of the lost paradise) returns each spring and her passions (destructive like nature’s inhuman forces) necessitates the “technology” (yes, this is the word he uses!) of marriage in order to control her.

Along with Pandora, there was Helene. She is the symbol of the essential ambiguity of woman and sexual beauty divinely embodied in her patroness Aphrodite, and equally as destructive as hers. Byron calls her “the Greek Eve,” the cause of masculine Greece’s “fall.” Homer even calls herself twice “bitch-faced,” adding once the honorable adjective “evil-plotting.” Why? Her sexual appetite could not be easily satisfied and controlled by men. It happens….

Her half-sister, Klytaimestra, was another interesting character. She embodied — as Aeschylus (Oresteia) says — “the relentless havoc of unleashed female passion that attacks from within the orders of household and state.” She was “the lion raised as a pet in the house…child-loving, and a joy to the old” while young, but ultimately defiling the house with blood, a “priest of destruction” when its savage nature surfaces.

I will spare you the number of times Homer calls her “bitch-faced.” This woman, driven by the female’s most potent force, a sexual energy magnified by a sense of injustice and dishonor, killed her rival Kassandra and her spouse Agamenon with a “man-minded heart,” Aeschilus says. She is even more dreadful than other women because she is a male woman! She appears to be the combination of “man’s will-driven mind” and “woman’s sexual passion” colluding to bring destruction and death.

Maybe “the technique of marriage” did not work so well in her case.

However, the list of merciless examples of female erotic power is long. I will stop here in order to discourage further misogynist feelings.

The word “sex” has traveled a long way, from the dusty office of sleepy bureaucrats all the way to the blood that flows in our human veins.

References

Books on the topic:

B. S. Thorton, Eros. The Myth of Ancient Greek Sensuality, Oxford: Harper Collins Publisher, 1997.

D. Halperin, J. J. Winkler, F. I. Zeitlin, Before Sexuality, Princeton University Press, 1990.

About the Author

Susi Ferrarello, Ph.D., is a professor of philosophy at the University of California

THE FUTURE UNDERWATER CITIES

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities

Living underwater is actually possible, and you could be moving to an underwater city in the near future. By  Donovan Alexander October 23, 2020

Edited By Alex Santiago

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities Philip Pauley

The idea of humans living underwater may not be as crazy as you think. An idea once reserved for video games or science fiction, underwater cities may be a viable solution for humanity in the distant future.

Would you pack up your bags, clear out your apartment, and move to an underwater paradise? Perhaps you might even dream of living like the fictional city of Atlantis. If it makes sense to go out and colonize Mars, the ocean is just as livable and is far closer to home. As you probably already know, the earth is 71% water. This could be prime real estate for future generations.

However, there are promising new horizons in the world of the underwater living that could tackle these issues and have you or your future children living comfortably underwater in the coming years.

1. Underwater cities are not a new idea

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
Source: Cousteau

Though not as frequently touted as some forms of space colonization, underwater living has titillated futurists since the beginning of the 20th century. However, it was the iconic ocean explorer Jacques Cousteau who made this idea a reality, bringing it to fruition in the early 1960s.

For the uninitiated, Jacques Yves Cousteau was a French oceanographer, researcher, filmmaker, and undersea explorer, who was largely responsible for igniting the interest of the general public in the ocean, and the eventual possibility of underwater cities.

Cousteau was so passionate about understanding and exploring the world’s oceans that he created the famous Conshelf series of underwater habitats.

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
Source: Cousteau

The structures allowed ‘oceanauts’ to live underwater for days, or even weeks at a time. Each iteration of the shelters (Conshelf I, II, III) improved over time, eventually allowing six oceanauts to live underwater at a full 328 feet (100 meters) below the surface.

Cousteau’s efforts to colonize the ocean laid the foundation for the future of underwater cities. In fact, Conshelf sparked a craze, and in the late 60s and early 70s, more than 60 underwater habitats were dotted across the seabeds, with names like Sealab, Hydrolab, Edalhab, Helgoland, Galathee, Tektite, Aquabulle, Hippocampe.

2. The depth of the colony affects everything

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
The Chinese underwater/floating city project. Source: AT Design

How humans breathe underwater, and the depth of the structure, are correlated, dictating how the structure should be created and the mixture of air humans will need to breathe in their underwater city.

First and foremost, it appears that humans should not build colonies deeper than 1,000 feet (300 meters), and ideally at much shallower depths.

This is because the pressure at these depths would not only require very thick walls but would also require lengthy periods of decompression when returning to the surface.

At these depths, humans need to take extra measures to ensure that there is a healthy ratio of oxygen to other gases in the air, as the body requires varying levels of different air components when at pressure. Plants and artificial light could possibly be used to supply some oxygen, but depth, nitrogen, or helium would also be needed.

3. Food wouldn’t be a problem in our underwater city

The good news is that living on the ocean floor could provide humans with ready access to seafood and sea plants. There are aquanauts who are currently living underwater, who are able to partially support themselves via spearfishing, combined with canned and preserved foods. 

Even more so, more traditional meals and even freshwater could be transported through tunnel or hose systems connected to the surface.

4. Living underwater will give us a better understanding of the ocean

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
The Chinese floating/underwater city project. Source: AT Design

The idea of living underwater is of particular interest to scientists around the world, including marine biologists. Scientists and researchers have better maps of Mars than they do of Earth’s own ocean floors. To this date, humans have only explored 3% of the ocean.

Living underwater could also help give scientists a better understanding of the planet and the evolution of life on Earth. Not to mention, there are likely a host of resources still to be discovered on the ocean floor.

Experts predict there could be an unquantifiable amount of minerals and metals that could be used to improve humanity and even help with the further construction of underwater cities.

5. There are architects already working on underwater city plans

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
Source: Shimizu Corporation

Architects at the Shimizu Corporation have already designed a $26 billion project to create an underwater city. According to the Tokyo-based company, their project would allow thousands of humans to live very comfortably underwater.

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
Source: Shimizu Corporation

Though most of it is still just a concept, the Ocean Spiral City would sit below sea level off the coast of Tokyo. With its massive turbines, the city would power itself through the power of waves, tide, and ocean currents, supporting those who lived on the structure.

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
Source: Shimizu Corporation

The structure would be able to support 5,000 people, and would include labs, schools, and beautiful residential areas. The underwater city could become a reality by around 2030.

6. The technology already exists… Sort of

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
The floating underwater ecopolis for climate refugees. Source: Vincent Callebaut Architects

Right now, humans have the ability to create underwater colonies that could support upwards of 100 people. As a biology professor at Stanford University Ian Koblick states, “There are no technological hurdles. If you had the money and the need, you could do it today.”

Constructed with steel, glass, and special cement, habitats are more likely to have a modular design than the more popular conception of a big, underwater bubble or dome.

Structures could be added or subtracted from the underwater colony to help fit population needs. Larger underwater colonies are already feasible. What keeps them from coming into fruition is a lack of interest, motivation, and funding.

7. It could help preserve humanity

Hopefully, it won’t get to this, but living underwater could help to save the human species in the case of a major apocalyptic event. Philip Pauley, founder of the London-based visual communications consultancy Pauley, has designed a self-sustaining habitat that could save 50-100 people during a disaster scenario.

7 Things You Should Know About the Future of Underwater Cities
Source: Philip Pauley

One way to combat the growing threat of war, limited resources, or global warming may come from moving populations underwater.

To the future

Would you live in an underwater city? You may not get the full Rapture experience yet; however, there are already restaurants and hotels that are popping up around the world that allow people to experience limited underwater living. It is probably more comfortable than living on Mars.